Clonidine, a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist has been under use as an adjuvant with hyperbaric bupivacaine for prolonging analgesia and maintaining hemodynamic stability during lower limb orthopedic and lower abdominal surgeries.
The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intrathecal Clonidine 50 and 75 μg as adjuvant to hyperbaric Bupivacaine 15 mg (3 mL), and hyperbaric Bupivacaine 3 mL with saline 0.5 mL for onset and duration of anesthesia, hemodynamic stability, and side effects if any.
This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on 120 patients scheduled for lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia. The study population was divided into three groups with 40 patients in each group. Group I (controlled group) received 3 mL (15 mg) of 0.5% Bupivacaine heavy and 0.5 mL of normal saline. Group II received 50 μg of clonidine followed by Bupivacaine 0.5% 3 mL (15 mg) and group III received 75 μg of clonidine followed by Bupivacaine 0.5% 3 mL (15 mg) intrathecally. Time taken for onset of sensory and motor blockade, duration of anesthesia, and any perioperative and postoperative complications was noted.
We found that clonidine 75 μg given prior to bupivacaine, 3 mL, significantly prolongs the duration of anesthesia with minimal changes in hemodynamic parameters and postoperative complications.
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